Classical conditioning involves learning by association, and operant conditioning involves learning from the consequences of behavior.
Classical conditioning (CC) was studied by the Russian psychologist Ivan Pavlov.
These include systematic desensitization for phobias (step-by-step exposed to a feared stimulus at once) and aversion therapy. Skinner felt that some behavior could be explained by the person's motive.
Therefore behavior occurs for a reason, and the three main behavior shaping techniques are positive reinforcement, negative reinforcement and punishment.
Behaviorism is concerned with how environmental factors (called stimuli) affect observable behavior (called the response).