The six major beliefs in Islam, as understood by the majority of Sunni Muslims, are: belief in God; belief in angels; belief in God’s prophets/messengers; belief in God’s revelations in the form of holy scriptures sent to the messengers; belief in an afterlife that follows the Day of Judgment on which people will be held accountable for their actions and compensated accordingly in the afterlife; and belief in God’s divine will and His knowledge of what happens in the world.
Muslims practice their faith in many different ways, but the major practices for both Sunni and Shi’a Muslims are known as the Five Pillars, which include: the profession of faith, namely that there is only one God, and that Muhammad is the Messenger of God; the five daily prayers; required annual donation to charity in the amount of 2.5% of one’s excess wealth; fasting during daylight hours in the month of Ramadan; and making a pilgrimage to Mecca once in a lifetime, if one is mentally, physically, and financially able.
There are about 50 countries in the world today with a majority Muslim population, each having its own distinct history and culture (or multiplicity of cultures).
And there are sizeable Muslim minorities in many other countries, including the United States and virtually all the countries of Europe, that are living Islam in their own unique situations.
The term Arabian was historically used to describe an inhabitant of the Arabian Peninsula.
Today “Arabian” is used as an adjective to describe a non-human noun (e.g., Arabian coffee); it should not be used to refer to people.
The Arabic word “Islam” is based on the root “slm,” which means peace or surrender to God.