No screening instruments available can reliably make the diagnosis; the gold standard remains an interview by a skilled clinician.The current VA screening tool is intended to initiate the evaluation process, not to definitively make a diagnosis. Patients with moderate and severe brain injuries often, though not always, have unequivocal evidence of the relationship of their symptoms to their injury.
Here are the accepted definitions: About 80% of all TBI's in the civilian population are mild traumatic brain injuries (m TBI).
The primary causes of TBI's in the civilian population are falls, motor vehicle accidents, being struck by an object, and assaults.
Patients with moderate and severe brain injuries often have focal deficits and occasionally profound brain damage.
However, it should be noted that the severity of the initial injury does not correlate in a linear fashion with the severity of the brain damage, and that some of these patients can make remarkable recoveries.
The primary causes of TBI in Veterans of Iraq and Afghanistan are blasts, blast plus motor vehicle accidents (MVA's), MVA's alone, and gunshot wounds.