Others, including the Australian Defence Force, the British Armed Forces (BAF), Nepal Army, the Pakistani Armed Forces (PAF), the Swiss Armed Forces, the Singapore Armed Forces, the Israel Defense Forces (IDF), the Swedish Armed Forces, and the New Zealand Defence Force, are different in not requiring a university degree for commissioning - although a significant number of officers in these countries are graduates.
In the Israel Defense Forces, a university degree is a requirement for an officer to advance to the rank of lieutenant colonel.
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The first, and primary route are those who receive their commission directly into the officer grades following completion at their relevant military academy.
In the second method, an individual may gain their commission after first enlisting and serving in the Junior Ranks, and typically reaching one of the Senior Non-Commissioned Officer (SNCO) ranks (which start at Sergeant (Sgt), and above), as what are known as 'Direct Entry' or DE officers (and are typically and informally known as an 'ex-ranker').
The Royal Navy, however, operated on a more meritocratic, or at least socially mobile, basis. A smaller number of officers may be commissioned via other programs, such as the Marine Corps Platoon Leaders Class (PLC) during summers while attending college, or the Navy's since discontinued Aviation Officer Candidate School (AOCS) program, which also included the embedded Aviation Reserve Officer Candidate (AVROC) and Naval Aviation Cadet (NAVCAD) programs. These schools train and commission college graduates and enlisted personnel toward being promoted to the commissioned officer ranks. Knudsen, with the highest-ranking such commission, is possibly the most famous example.
Others may attend pre-commissioning or post-commissioning officer indoctrination programs for officers in the medical/dental specialities, lawyers slated as Judge Advocate General's Corps (JAG) officers, and military chaplains. Other officers may be commissioned through the Reserve Officers' Training Corps (ROTC), which is the largest source of officers for the U. In the United States Armed Forces, officers without a university degree can, under certain circumstances, be commissioned. In countries whose ranking systems are based upon the models of the British Armed Forces (BAF), officers from the rank of Second Lieutenant (army), Sub-Lieutenant (navy) or Pilot Officer (air force) to the rank of General, Admiral or Air Chief Marshal respectively, are holders of a commission granted to them by the appropriate awarding authority.
Commissioned officers generally receive training as leadership and management generalists, in addition to training relating to their specific military occupational specialty or function in the military.